CCE Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Information Systems (DISS)


College of Engineering and Computing


Yair Levy

Committee Member

Michelle M. Ramim

Committee Member

Steven R. Terrell


biometrics, invasion of privacy, multi-method authentication systems, personal identifying information, radio frequency, resistance, Information technology


Over the course of history, different means of object and person identification as well as verification have evolved for user authentication. In recent years, a new concern has emerged regarding the accuracy of verifiable authentication and protection of personal identifying information (PII), because previous misuses have resulted in significant financial loss. Such losses have escalated more noticeably because of human identity-theft incidents due to breaches of PII within multiple public-access environments. Although the use of various biometric and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies is expanding, resistance to using these technologies for user authentication remains an issue. This study addressed the effect of individuals’ perceptions on their resistance to using multi-method authentication systems (RMS) in public-access environments and uncovered key constructs that may significantly contribute to such resistance.

This study was a predictive study to assess the contributions of individuals’ perceptions of the importance of organizational protection of their PII, noted as Perceived Value of Organizational Protection of PII (PVOP), authentication complexity (AC), and invasion of privacy (IOP) on their resistance to using multi-method authentication systems (RMS) in public-access environments. Moreover, this study also investigated if there were any significant differences on the aforementioned constructs based on age, gender, prior experience with identity theft, and acquaintance experience with identity theft. As part of this study, a rollout project was implemented of multi-factor biometric and RFID technologies for system authentication prior to electronic-commerce (e-commerce) use in public-access environments. The experimental group experienced the multi-factor authentication and also was trained on its use. Computer users (faculty & students) from a small, private university participated in the study to determine their level of PVOP, IOP, and AC on their resistance to using the technology in public-access environments. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was used to formulate a model and test predictive power along with the significance of the contribution of the aforementioned constructs on RMS. The results show that all construct measures demonstrated very high reliability. The results also indicate that the experimental group of the multi-factor authentication had lower resistance than the control group that didn’t use the technology. The mean increases indicate an overall statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups overall. The results also demonstrate that students and participants’ increased levels of education indicate an overall statistically significant decrease in resistance. The findings demonstrate that overall computer authentication training do provide added value in the context of measuring resistance to using newer multi-method authentication technology.