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Cnaan, Draine, Frazier, and Sinha (2008) indicated that the more punitive and exclusionary in which policies are towards prisoners and ex-prisoners, the less protected are the rights of citizens in general. In 2004, nearly seven million people or 1 in every 31 adults were under criminal justice supervision (Cnaan, Draine, Frazier, & Sinha, 2008). Upon release from prison or probation or parole, ex-offenders are seeking (or in some cases mandated) employment or participate in efforts to further their education. As recently as 2014, 1 in every 4 U.S. citizens had a criminal record (D'Alessio, Flexon, & Stolzenberg, 2014). The attainment of employment is certainly a daunting challenge for ex-offenders especially in their first year of release, as 92% of employers conduct background checks on job applicants (D'Alessio, Flexon, & Stolzenberg, 2014).

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