Chapter Title/Book Title
Essays in Developmental Psychology
Randall Summers, Charles Golden, Lisa Lashley, & Erica Ailes
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An adequate level of parenting—providing enough nutrition, shelter, exposure to language and peers, or not harshly punishing children (punching, kicking, striking with a weapon)—seems to not have a long-term effect on cognitive development in children. Twin and adoption studies have found that intelligence is accounted for almost entirely by genes and nonshared environment, which includes peers, teachers, and unique experiences. However, there are parenting styles and types of home environments that are correlated with better school performance, stronger school engagement, and more words spoken at certain ages.
cognitive development, home environments, nutrition, parental influence, parenting styles, twin and adoption studies
Lashley, L. K.,
Golden, C. J.
(2020). Parental Influence. Essays in Developmental Psychology.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cps_facbooks/727