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Childbirth Approaches

Childbirth Approaches

Book Title

Essays in Developmental Psychology

Document Type


Publication Date



Randall Summers, Charles Golden, Lisa Lashley, & Erica Ailes


cesarean, cesareans by maternal request, childbirth approaches, elective surgical procedure, planned cesarean, vaginal delivery, women’s reproductive rights



There are various approaches to childbirth, apart from the typical approach of vaginal delivery (e.g., typically done in a hospital). Another approach is a cesarean, which can classified as either an emergency or planned procedure. In the case where an emergency cesarean is needed a vaginal birth would have been detrimental to health of the mother and/or the fetus. A planned cesarean is requested ahead of time due to medical indication or requested by the mother. When requested by the mother the delivery is considered an elective surgical procedure, since it was requested without any medical or obstetrical indication. Cesareans by maternal request have become more common recently around the globe. Some reasons for this increase can be because of cultural factors, the changing attitudes of mothers and clinicians, fear of giving birth (i.e., tocophobia).or for convenience of scheduling.

Additional Information

This is one in a collection of essays as part of a project that began as an encyclopedia of developmental psychology coordinated by Dr. Randall Summers. However, for unforeseen reasons, the publisher was no longer in a position to publish the encyclopedia. This project was undertaken so that thousands of hours of work by psychologists would not go wasted. Enjoy these essays and feel free to cite them using the proper format.

Submit suggestions for corrections and topics to goldench@nova.edu.




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Childbirth Approaches