The Life History and Population Dynamics of a Protogynous Hermaphroditic Grouper (Epinephelus guttatus): Case Studies from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. Marine Biology

First Advisor

Bernhard Riegl

Second Advisor

Curtis Burney


Many species of marine fishes enjoy the spotlight of scientific literature due to overexploitation by fisheries. For these species, it is important to collect data regarding their life history traits and certain dynamics of their populations. The red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, provides an excellent example of an overexploited and subsequently researched species. Elements of the life history of this species leave it particularly susceptible to overexploitation and warrant discussion. The literature depicts a history of overexploitation and data collection, followed by the implementation and results of various protective measures. Following is a summary of the literature regarding red hind from Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. Population models are constructed from the available data in an effort to illustrate the impacts of various protective measures and the results are discussed. Recommendations towards future research efforts are made where the data appears to be lacking.

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