23rd International Colloquium on Animal Cytogenetics and Genomics, June 9-12, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Numerous Carnivora karyotype evolution investigations have been performed by classical and molecular cytogenetics and were supplemented by reconstructions of the Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However, the group of Pinnipedia was not studied in detail. Here we reconstruct pinniped karyotype evolution and refine ACK using published and our new painting data for 10 pinniped species. The combination of human (HSA) and domestic dog (CFA) whole-chromosome painting probes was used for the construction of the comparative chromosome maps for species from all three pinniped families: Odobenidae– Odobenus rosmarus Linnaeus, 1758, Phocidae – Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758, Pusa sibirica Gmelin, 1788, Erignathus barbatus Erxleben, 1777, Phoca largha Pallas, 1811, Phoca hispida Schreber, 1775 and Otariidae – Eumetopias jubatus Schreber, 1775, Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758, Phocarctos hookeri Gray, 1844, Arctocephalus forsteri Lesson, 1828. HSA and CFA autosome painting probes have delineated 32 and 68 conservative autosome segments in the studied genomes. The comparative painting in Pinnipedia supports monophyletic origin of pinnipeds, shows that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years), provides strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38 and specifies plausible order of dog chromosome synthenic segments on ancestral Carnivora chromosomes. The heterochromatin, telomere and ribosomal DNA distribution was studied in all 10 species.
Conference Proceeding Title
Comparative Cytogenetics v.12(3)
Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasiya A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; O'Brien, Stephen James; and Graphodatsky, Alexander S., "Pinniped Karyotype Evolution Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of 10 Pinniped Species (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)" (2018). Biology Faculty Proceedings, Presentations, Speeches, Lectures. 323.