From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets, an Evolutionary View of Domestication
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Artificial selection, Sympatric divergence
Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats.
Driscoll, Carlos A.; David W. Macdonald; and Stephen J. O'Brien. 2009. "From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets, an Evolutionary View of Domestication." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, (Supplement 1): 9971-9978. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cnso_bio_facarticles/200