Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Avian malaria, Hematozoan parasites, India, Myanmar, South Korea
Tissue samples from 699 birds from three regions of Asia (Myanmar, India, and South Korea) were screened for evidence of infection by avian parasites in the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Samples were collected from November 1994 to October 2004. We identified 241 infected birds (34.0%). Base-on-sequence data for the cytochrome b gene from 221 positive samples, 34 distinct lineages of Plasmodium, and 41 of Haemoproteus were detected. Parasite diversity was highest in Myanmar followed by India and South Korea. Parasite prevalence differed among regions but not among host families. There were four lineages of Plasmodium and one of Haemoproteus shared between Myanmar and India and only one lineage of Plasmodium shared between Myanmar and South Korea. No lineages were shared between India and South Korea, although an equal number of distinct lineages were recovered from each region. Migratory birds in South Korea and India originate from two different migratory flyways; therefore cross-transmission of parasite lineages may be less likely. India and Myanmar shared more host species and habitat types compared to South Korea. Comparison between low-elevation habitat in India and Myanmar showed a difference in prevalence of haematozoans.
Ishtiaq, Farah; Eben Gering; Jon H. Rappole; Asad R. Rahmani; Yadvendradev V. Jhala; Carla J. Dove; Christopher M. Milensky; Storrs L. Olson; Mike A. Peirce; and Robert C. Fleischer. 2007. "Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Hematozoan Parasites in Asia: A Regional Study." Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43, (3): 382-398. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-43.3.382.