Department of Conflict Resolution Studies Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences – Department of Conflict Resolution Studies

First Advisor

Ismael Muvingi

Second Advisor

Elena Bastidas

Third Advisor

Erika L. Sauer


Tanzania’s natural resources are national resources for the benefit of all Tanzanian citizens (The Arusha Declaration, 1967). The liberalization of the Mining Industry in the mid-1990s sparked hope in the country that the socio-economic status of all citizens across the nation would improve as a result of the mineral resource revenues obtained by the Government of Tanzania. Contemporary literature on mining in Tanzania has mostly riveted on issues surrounding a triangular relationship between the mining girdle and its population, foreign mining companies, and the Government of Tanzania. Hardly any attention has been given to the non-mining rural districts where the poor majority reside. This qualitative study using a phenomenological approach explored the shared experiences of citizens living in non-mining rural districts and their ascribed meanings of inequitable distributive realities in mineral resource revenues in Tanzania. The study employed the theories of relative deprivation and human needs for the theoretical framework. Study findings revealed seven core essences: socio-economic insecurity, inequity and injustice, communication and trust, investment and technology, moral leadership and human capital, growth and a culture of dependency. Understanding these essences should help determine policies and practices that promote equitable distribution of not only mineral resource wealth but also in other types of natural resource wealth found in the country; allowing for a true/win-win tri-partnership relationship involving all stake-holders: Tanzanian citizens, foreign investors, and the Government of Tanzania.