American strategies to deal with terrorist attacks against Americans in Lebanon in the 1980s and by Libya since the beginning of the 1980s are examined. The consequences of the various strategies employed by U.S. government officials over time and the strategies employed by American non-governmental actors and by international organizations are compared. In addition, alternative strategies that might plausibly have been employed are also discussed. Official actions that relied largely on military methods and were conducted unilaterally tended to be less effective, even counterproductive, compared to actions that were multilateral and relied significantly on diplomatic approaches, often aided by intermediaries.
American non-governmental actors, diplomatic approaches, intermediaries, international organizations, Lebanon, Libya, terrorist attacks
"Assessing Past Strategies for Countering Terrorism, in Lebanon and by Libya,"
Peace and Conflict Studies: Vol. 13:
1, Article 1.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/pcs/vol13/iss1/1