Deep-Sea Sampling on CMarZ Cruises in the Atlantic Ocean – an Introduction
Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Zooplankton, Fish, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, DNA barcode, Diversity, Atlantic Ocean, Sargasso Sea
The deep-sea zooplankton assemblage is hypothesized to have high species diversity, with low abundances of each species. However, even rare species may have huge population sizes and play a critical role in the dynamics of deep-sea environments. The Census of Marine Zooplankton (CMarZ) study sought to accurately assess zooplankton diversity in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the subtropical/tropical of the northwest and eastern sections of the Atlantic Ocean using integrated morphological and molecular analysis of large-volume samples to depths of 5,000 m. The field surveys in April 2006 and November 2007 included scientists and students associated with the CMarZ. The cruise field work entailed at-sea analysis of samples and identification of specimens by expert taxonomists, with at-sea DNA sequencing to determine a barcode (i.e., a short DNA sequence for species recognition) for selected species. Environmental data and zooplankton samples were collected with 1-m2 and 10-m2opening/closing MOCNESS (0–1000 m and 1000–5000 m, respectively), and with either a 0.25-m2MOCNESS or a 0.5-m2 Multi-net above 1000 m. More than 500 species were identified and more than 1000 specimens placed in a queue for barcoding on each cruise; several hundred species were barcoded at sea. For several taxonomic groups, a significant fraction of the region’s known species were collected and identified. For example, in the northwest Atlantic 93 of 140 known ostracod species for the Atlantic Ocean were collected, 6 undescribed species were found, and the first DNA barcode for a planktonic ostracod was obtained. The deployment of trawls with fine-mesh nets to sample large volumes at great depths for small zooplankton confirmed that there is considerable species diversity at depth, with more species yet to be discovered.
Peter Wiebe, Ann Bucklin, Laurence P. Madin, Martin V. Angel, Tracey Sutton, Francescn Pages, Russell R. Hopcroft, and Dhugal Lindsay. 2010. Deep-Sea Sampling on CMarZ Cruises in the Atlantic Ocean – an Introduction .Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography , (24-26) : 2157 -2166. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/occ_facarticles/513.