There continues to be growing public awareness regarding concussions and the detrimental effects sustaining such an injury can have on one’s life. Of increased importance is the understanding of how concussions impact children and adolescents, particularly as a result of sport engagements. Contact sports involving youth account for 41% of the concussions seen in emergency departments (Waltzman et al., 2020). Of note, hospital estimates tend to underrepresent the total number of sport-related concussions as they do not factor patients treated in a community setting (Bazarian et al., 2020). In consideration of this public health epidemic, there is a current projection of 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions per year in the United States (Hiasat & Nischal, 2020). This number is based on individuals and their families who sought out treatment and neglects to account for the injuries that are unreported for a variety of reasons (e.g., injuries that the individual, their parents, coaches, athletic director, or the community did not recognize as a sustained concussion at the time of or after the injury). While there have been efforts to better educate youth athletes, their parents, and the community, large gaps in knowledge and misconceptions prevail regarding the definition of a concussion and what to do in the case of a potential concussion. In attempts to address these deficits, this article strives to define and expand upon various components associated with concussions. Factors to be addressed in this current review consist of the signs and symptoms of concussion, methods of diagnosis, the process of returning to learn and play (following an evaluation), and the various factors that impact the recovery process.


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