The "failed state" concept, which came to prominence in academic and policy discourse in the early 1990's with the publication of David Helman and Steven Ratner's 1991 article Saving Failed States,' continues to enjoy widespread currency as a way of denoting situations where the governmental infrastructure in a state has broken down to a considerable degree.
"The Skewed Responsibility Narrative Of The "Failed States" Concept,"
ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law: Vol. 9
, Article 11.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ilsajournal/vol9/iss2/11