In May of 2000, the FTC, under Chairman Robert Pitofsky, concluded that industry self-regulation was not effective in protecting consumer privacy and in a report to Congress the FTC expressed the view "that legislation [was] necessary to ensure further implementation of consumer data protection devices."
Kambas, William J.
"A Safety Net In The E-Marketplace: The Safe Harbor Principles Offer Comprehensive Privacy Protection Without Stopping Data Flow,"
ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law: Vol. 9:
1, Article 6.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ilsajournal/vol9/iss1/6