Economic sanctions may take many forms and may be applied unilaterally or multilaterally, but like all uses of the economic instrument, they involve the purposive threat or actual granting or withholding of economic indulgences, opportunities, and benefits by one actor or group of actors in order to induce another actor or group of actors to change or adjust an internal or external policy.
Reisman, W Michael
"When Are Economic Sanctions Effective? Selected Theorems And Corollaries,"
ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law: Vol. 2
, Article 3.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ilsajournal/vol2/iss3/3