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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the ability of the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) to classify athletic trainers (ATs) and athletic directors (ADs) readiness to act with regards to adopting an emergency action plan (EAP), and describe factors influencing PAPM stages. Method: We used a cross-sectional questionnaire design to evaluate readiness to act for developing an EAP among ATs and ADs working in United States high schools. The PAPM is a participant-driven model to identify someone’s readiness to act or change and has seven stages: Unaware, Unengaged, Undecided, Decided not to Act, Decided to Act, Acting and Maintaining. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: A majority of ATs and ADs reported maintaining an EAP in their secondary school (AT “Maintaining” = 84.4%, AD “Maintaining” = 68.7%). ADs were more likely to be staged as “Decided not to Act” (PR=0.14, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.41) for the development of an EAP compared to ATs. ATs were more likely to be staged as “Maintaining” (PR=1.23, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.30) for the development of an EAP compared to ADs. Conclusions: The PAPM appears to be able to classify AT and AD readiness to act with adoption of an EAP. However, statistical modeling struggles to identify predictors for the various stages. Future research should aim to use the PAPM stages in the development of tailored interventions.

Author Bio(s)

Samantha E. Scarneo-Miller, PhD, ATC, is the program director of the athletic training program and assistant professor in the Division of Athletic Training in the School of Medicine at West Virginia University. She is also a licensed athletic trainer.

Douglas J. Casa, PhD, ATC, is the Chief executive officer for the Korey Stringer Institute and Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Connecticut. He is also a licensed athletic trainer.

Shuang Yin is a graduate student in the Department of Statistics at the University of Connecticut.

Timothy E. Moore, PhD, is a faculty member for the Statistical Consulting Services, Center for Open Research Resources & Equipment at the University of Connecticut.

Yuki Murata is a graduate student in the graduate school of education and human development at Nagoya University in Japan.

Johna K. Register-Mihalik, PhD, ATC, is an associate professor in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. She is also a licensed athletic trainer.

Lindsay J. DiStefano, PhD, ATC, is an associate professor and department head of the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Connecticut. She is also a licensed athletic trainer.

Acknowledgements

This study was partially funded by the NATA Research & Education Foundation.

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