BCL-2 Inhibitors Sensitize Therapy-Resistant Chronic Lymphocyte Leukemia Cells To VSV Oncolysis
ISBN or ISSN
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Publication Date / Copyright Date
Nature Publishing Group
Many primary cancers including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are resistant to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced oncolysis due to overexpression of the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of CLL cell death induced as a consequence of VSV infection in the presence of BCL-2 inhibitors, obatoclax, and ABT-737 in primary ex vivo CLL patient samples. Microarray analysis of primary CD19⁺ CD5⁺ CLL cells treated with obatoclax and VSV revealed changes in expression of genes regulating apoptosis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and cellular metabolism. A combined therapeutic effect was observed for VSV and BCL-2 inhibitors in cells from untreated patients and from patients unresponsive to standard of care therapy. In addition, combination treatment induced several markers of autophagy--LC3-II accumulation, p62 degradation, and staining of autophagic vacuoles. Inhibition of early stage autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) led to increased apoptosis in CLL samples. Mechanistically, a combination of BCL-2 inhibitors and VSV disrupted inhibitory interactions of Beclin-1 with BCL-2 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), thus biasing cells toward autophagy. We propose a mechanism in which changes in cellular metabolism, coupled with pharmacologic disruption of the BCL-2-Beclin-1 interactions, facilitate induction of apoptosis and autophagy to mediate the cytolytic effect of VSV.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Samuel, Sara; Beljanski, Vladimir; Grevenynghe, Julien Van; Richards, Stephanie; Yebdi, Fethia Ben; He, Zhong; Nichols, Carmen; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Steel, Courtney; Goulet, Marie-Line; Shamy, April; Brown, Dawn; Abesada, Guillermo; Haddad, Elias K.; and Hiscott, John, "BCL-2 Inhibitors Sensitize Therapy-Resistant Chronic Lymphocyte Leukemia Cells To VSV Oncolysis" (2013). NSU-MD Faculty Articles. 106.