orthopedic surgery, state opioid regulations, prescription drug monitoring program (pdmp), monitoring opioid prescribing patterns, federal regulation, opioid utilization
In the past three decades, the use of opioids has risen tremendously. Pain was named the “fifth patient vital sign” in the 1990s, and from that point, opioid usage has continued to grow throughout the 2010s leading to its recognition as a crisis. The United States is responsible for 80% of the global opioid usage while only accounting for less than 5% of the global population. Previously opioids were mostly used to treat acute pain, however, opioids have been most recently used to manage chronic pain as well. The opioid crisis has presented new challenges in treating pain while preventing the abuse of these medications in a system that lacks standardization of treatment guidelines across the United States. Therefore, the authors of this review examine the current national recommendations to help manage the ongoing opioid crisis and explore how they may impact orthopedic patient care.
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Braithwaite, Johann; Tarazi, John M.; Gruber, Joshua; Boroniec, Jarret; Cohn, Randy; and Bitterman, Adam, "A Review of Federal and Statewide Guidelines and Their Effects on Orthopedics" (2023). HPD Articles. 280.
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