College of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Articles


First-job preferences and expectations of pharmacy students: Some inter-gender and interethnic comparisons



Publication Title

Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association





Date of original Performance / Presentation

January 1999

Publication Date / Copyright Date


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OBJECTIVES: To identify and measure intergender and interethnic differences in preferences and expectations of pharmacy students. DESIGN: Two-part survey. One part addressed systematic variations in work-related expectations and preferences between the sexes and among ethnic minorities that may result from cumulative disadvantage or attitudinal traits; the other part focused on similarities and differences in expected sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. SETTING: College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University. PARTICIPANTS: 171 students enrolled in their final semester of didactic training (that is, immediately before rotations or internship). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Significance of intergender and interethnic disparities was determined using t tests. RESULTS: No significant intergender disparities were detected in income expectations, anticipated level of job satisfaction, estimated time from graduation to passing the Board exam or working, or in preferred or expected sector of first job. African American students expected to earn lower levels of income, experience less satisfaction in their first job as a pharmacist, and work longer hours. Hispanic and Asian American students exhibited less confidence in their ability to pass the Board exam and in the allocative function of the job market. Salary and ability to help patients were the two sources of job satisfaction anticipated most frequently, whereas work overload ranked first among the anticipated sources of job dissatisfaction. CONCLUSION: The rapidly changing gender composition of the profession has altered traditional integender differences in outlook and attitudinal traits, contributing to the disappearance of intergender disparities identified in previous research. However, significant interethnic differences in preferences and expectations suggest the presence of cumulative disadvantage among minorities.


Medical Specialties | Medicine and Health Sciences | Osteopathic Medicine and Osteopathy

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