Faculty Articles


Final Report of the Controlled Cohort Investigations into the Health Effects of Bathing in Sewage Contaminated Coastal Waters

Publication Title

British Department of Environment

Publication Date / Copyright Date



National Rivers Authority


This report explains a healthy volunteer experiment designed to quantify the possible health effects of bathing in sewage polluted sea waters. The research protocol was similar to a controlled clinical trial, volunteers were randomised into bather and non bather groups and subjected to interviews and medical examinations before and after exposure in UK sea waters passing the EC Bathing Water Directive. Water quality was measured in great spatial and temporal detail allowing precise allocation of water quality exposure indices to individual bathers. This is the first time a healthy volunteer experiment has been accomplished in the examination of health effects of environmental pollution.


Medical Specialties | Medicine and Health Sciences | Osteopathic Medicine and Osteopathy


Bathing Water Directive, Environmental management, Human diseases, Water quality, Coastal waters