Predicting Responses of Geo-ecological Carbonate Reef Systems to Climate Change: A Conceptual Model and Review
Nicola K. Browne, Michael Cuttler, Katie Moon, Kyle Morgan, Claire L. Ross, Carolina Castro-Sanguino, Emma Kennedy, Dan Harris, Peter Barnes, Andrew G. Bauman, Eddie Beetham, Joshua Bonesso, Yves-Marie Bozec, Christopher E. Cornwall, Shannon Dee, Thomas M. DeCarlo, Juan P. D'Olivo, Christopher Doropoulos, Richard D. Evans, Bradley Eyre, Peter Gatenby, Manuel Gonzalez, Sarah Hamylton, Jeff Hansen, Ryan Lowe, Jennie Mallela, Michael O'Leary, George Roff, Benjamin J. Saunders, and Adi Zweilfer
[Chapter Abstract] 230Coral reefs provide critical ecological and geomorphic (e.g. sediment production for reef-fronted shoreline maintenance) services, which interact in complex and dynamic ways. These services are under threat from climate change, requiring dynamic modelling approaches that predict how reef systems will respond to different future climate scenarios. Carbonate budgets, which estimate net reef calcium carbonate production, provide a comprehensive ‘snap-shot’ assessment of reef accretionary potential and reef stability. These budgets, however, were not intended to account for the full suite of processes that maintain coral reef services or to provide predictive capacity on longer timescales (decadal to centennial). To respond to the dual challenges of enhancing carbonate budget assessments and advancing their predictive capacity, we applied a novel model elicitation and review method to create a qualitative geo-ecological carbonate reef system model that links geomorphic, ecological and physical processes. Our approach conceptualizes relationships between net carbonate production, sediment transport and landform stability, and rates knowledge confidence to reveal major knowledge gaps and critical future research pathways. The model provides a blueprint for future coral reef research that aims to quantify net carbonate production and sediment dynamics, improving our capacity to predict responses of reefs and reef-fronted shorelines to future climate change.
Collaborative Practices in Organizations: Managing Conflict and Leading Constructive Change
Robin Cooper and Terry Morrow Nelson
As our society becomes more diverse and issues become increasingly complex, organizations are challenged to transcend boundaries and inspire team members to understand and navigate diverse practices, perspectives, and interests. Conflict is inevitable in organizations, and collaboration is one pathway for managing conflict and engaging stakeholders in jointly resolving a problem or producing a desired outcome. Collaborators have high concern for both personal goals and relationships. Because collaboration requires a commitment to finding mutually agreeable solutions, this also communicates mutual respect, which can strengthen relationships and support team-building. In addition, collaboration fosters creative idea generation, with the potential to bring about unanticipated positive outcomes. Multiple forms of power can be leveraged to create positive results for the organization and its stakeholders, and this chapter discusses five forms of power as well as the importance of engaging informal and formal leaders to utilize their unique power to tackle complex issues and create sustainable outcomes together. An example of how collaboration has been used to promote positive health outcomes by promoting collaboration between multiple stakeholders is discussed.
Classroom Resistance: Peace Education in a Time of Rising Authoritarianism
Globally, on nearly every continent, scholars and human rights activists sound the alarm regarding rising authoritarianism. It is the call and vision of peace educators the world over to foster a culture of positive peace both locally and globally; thus it seems urgent that we consider what new concepts and tools we will need to protect schools, academic freedom, and the kinds of curriculum and pedagogy needed to protect peace education from the autocratic threats that are manifesting. Nonviolence, as we will explore below, is one essential tactic. First, we will examine the kinds of authoritarian regimes consolidating today and why they are appearing as they do. Next we will turn to what kinds of policy and pedagogy seem to be best equipped for our divisive, misogynist, racist, and xenophobic times.
Managing Organizational Conflicts Through Innovation, Creativity, and Inclusion: Implementing a Conflict System of Shared Leadership
Alexia Georgakopoulos, Barb Allen, and Eileen P. Petzold-Bradley
The need is urgent for organizational leaders and members to transform organizational conflicts by addressing conflict that is a natural part of organizational life. Leaders must evolve their organizational systems to address underlying causes of conflict and seek solutions that serve the interests of all, irrespective of where they may reside within the organizational hierarchy. Conflict will occur anywhere there is interdependence, so this chapter provides an impetus for organizational members to be pro-active rather than reactive in addressing conflict. This chapter will examine three facets of organizational conflict resolution: 1) the need for Conflict Management Systems, 2) the role of diversity, equity, and inclusion in system design, and 3) how the practice of shared leadership in addressing conflict and system design can be realized through Liberating Structures. We first examine the critical need for leaders to design a conflict management system (CMS) within their organizations, informed and shaped from the bottom-up. The process of designing a CMS must be inclusive, transparent, and collaborative; careful to ensure all voices are heard as the system is reshaped. Organizations that have Conflict Management Systems inherently and explicitly communicate “value” for employees. CMS provide an official platform for people to safely express and address their conflicts with the goal of transforming and restoring relationships in the workplace. Invariably, as organizations become increasingly diverse, the need to address diversity, equity, and inclusion within CMS design becomes essential. While most organizations espouse the values of appreciating diversity, upholding equity, and being inclusive, far fewer can bring these values to life in people’s everyday work. Lofty ideals followed by business-as-usual foments even more conflict, highlighting the necessity for all people, especially leaders, to develop competence and fluency around building a culture that truly embraces diversity. This paper concludes by introducing Liberating Structures as a practice of shared leadership. Liberating Structures offer a practical approach to radical collaboration through which people can listen, share, learn and have a higher, collective understanding of the complexities of a challenge enabling them to move towards meaningful action shaped by all. The array of diverse ideas is exponentially expanded through this shared practice, paving the way for creative and innovative solutions to previously unsolvable challenges.
Functions and Benefits of an Organizational Ombuds
Interpersonal Conflicts in the workplace are often viewed as an inevitable “cost of doing business”. When there are attempts to mitigate the damaging effects of ignoring workplace conflict, some organizations rely on traditionally accepted methods such as documentation, discipline, probation, or termination, often facilitated by offices of Human Resources and Legal Affairs. Furthermore, employees are often reluctant to use these offices to report issues that contribute to workplace conflict because of fear of going “on record” and possible retaliation. A more recent development within the varied menu of organizational resources to help mitigate the negative costs of workplace conflict is the Office of the Ombuds, staffed by one or more Organizational Ombuds (OO). The chapter presents a scenario of a somewhat typical workplace conflict scenario. It compares and contrasts how it was handled in an institution of higher education without an OO, and how it might have been handled if an OO was available and involved. Within this “story”, readers are informed about the role and potential benefits of having an Office of the Ombuds accessible to their employees.
Utilization of Frames and Reframing for Organizational Leadership and Conflict Management Effectiveness
Neil Katz and Michael Wahlgren
Framing is a common practice used to interpret situations and guide responses through mental mapping. Frames serve as anchor points that help clarify issues and identify solutions. Oftentimes we are limited in our scope of understanding and hampered by personal biases to fully open our perspectives to other viewpoints. Frames can go underutilized because people are unable to visualize and access multiple perspectives. In that case, reframing the issue from a limited frame to multi-frames will augment one's ability to analyze complex situations and uncover opportunities. Join Professor Rossin, a semi-fictional character who has accepted a new leadership challenge, as he utilizes an approach to framing and reframing that opens his aperture of understanding the issues and challenges at his new job. Developed by researchers Bolman and Deal, this framework for utilizing multiple perspectives provides four anchors for a more holistic and sophisticated understanding of challenges and opportunities leaders face daily. Through Professor Rossin's story, readers will learn the "what" "why" and "how" of framing and reframing and the importance of looking beyond a single or limited perspective.
Making the Invisible Visible: Uncovering the Mystery of Personality Conflicts at Work
Pavel Mischenko, Neil Katz, and Gayle Hardison
Conflicts are inevitable in organizations not only because of the objective differences in needs, goals, and means, but also due to individual subjective psychological differences. Those situations are often described as “personality conflicts.” In this chapter we introduce a new method and approach that professionals and leaders can use to mitigate and leverage those “personality conflicts.” The method, titled BOTH: Passwords to Human Minds employs powerful birth order sibling metaphors that anyone can relate to. Those metaphors, consistent with one’s experience as a child among siblings, facilitate identification of typical relationship habits that develop in early life and tend to influence how we habitually respond to workplace conflicts as adults. Furthermore, The BOTH method (Birth Order Typical Habits) demonstrates how one person’s typical habitual “blind spot” often unintentionally becomes a “stressor” for another, creating unnecessary “personality” conflicts. The BOTH Method provides powerful insight to lower emotional charge, and a clear situational roadmap of traditional conflict management skills.
Chapter 14 - Applying enzymatic biomarkers of the in situ microbial community to assess the risk of coastal sediment
Elisamara Sabadini-Santos, Vanessa de Almeida Moreira, Angelo Cezar Borges de Carvalho, Juliana Ribeiro Nascimento, Jose V. Lopez, Luiz Francisco Fontana, Ana Elisa Fonseca Silveira, and Edison Dausacker Bidone
[Chapter Abstract] This study applied the Quality Ratio (QR) index to integrate geochemical (TOC, fine grain content, and metal concentrations) and microbiological (Esterases (EST) and Dehydrogenase (DHA) activities of the in situ microbial community) parameters in order to classify the potential ecological risk of coastal sediments in dredging activities. Total concentrations (C) of Hg, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn (indicators of the complex mixture of contaminants in sediments) were determined in sediments inside Guanabara and Sepetiba bays (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and in oceanic dump sites outside the bays (C0) to calculate the contamination factor (CF = C/C0) and the degree of contamination (ΣCF). Likewise, DHA and EST activities were determined—respectively, biomarkers of energy production in the cell and hydrolase of organic matter outside the cell—which are altered under adverse conditions (e.g., contamination). The QR, a function of the microbial term DHA/EST and the geochemical term (TOC × ΣCF)/fine-grained content, was able to classify the sediments into three classes of risk: low (QR ≥ 10− 1), moderate (10− 2 ≤ QR < 10− 1), and high (QR ≥ 10− 3). The QR was able to segregate the hot spots of contamination of the bays. The QR was also applied to an acute assay and successfully identified the microbial community shift under a contamination gradient when mixing with dredged sediments. Thus QR provides an accessible (low cost and fast) and efficient alternative for assessing both the quality of coastal sediments and the ex situ bioassays, as required by Brazilian legislation for dredging sediments, as well as for other developing countries.
Chapter 7N: Open Ocean
Peter Croot, Osman Keh Kamara, Joseph Montoya, Tracey Sutton, and Michael Vecchione
Chapter Six - Population fluctuations of the fungiid coral Cycloseris curvata, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Joshua Feingold and Brandon A. Brule
Fungiid corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia) occur at isolated locations scattered throughout the eastern tropical Pacific. They can be reef-associated but are often found on sand and rubble substrata distant from reef coral habitat. Cycloseris curvata is known in this region from the southern Gulf of California, through Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panamá, and with the southern-most populations occurring in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. During Archipelago-wide surveys (1988–2019), living individuals of Cycloseris curvata were observed at only two locations, Devil's Crown (near Floreana Island) and Xarifa Island (near Española Island). The Devil's Crown population was observed from 1988 to 2017, whereas living individuals in the Xarifa population were observed from 2005 to 2009. In 2012 a death assemblage (dead skeletons) was discovered at Darwin Island, at the northern-most extent of the Archipelago. At Devil's Crown, visual surveys were performed annually or biennially from 1990 to 2012, with two more surveys in 2017 and 2019. The living Cycloseris curvata population consisted of 15 individuals in 1990 that gradually increased to 78 individuals by 1995. Over 200 individuals were observed in 1996, and high numbers persisted through 1998 with 335 individuals. Live tissue surface area per polyp ranged from 0.5 to 95.0 cm2. The population decreased to 112 individuals in 1999 (following warming associated with the 1997–98 El Niño), with further declines to 20 in 2009 (following cooling associated with the 2007 La Niña) and a rebound to 91 in 2012. After a 5y break in data collection, only one individual (28.3 cm2) was observed in 2017, and in 2019 none were observed. Although undetected living Cycloseris curvata populations may exist, and renewed recruitment provides some hope for population reestablishment, it is possible that this fungiid coral species is now extirpated from the Galápagos Archipelago.
RNA-seq Data Analysis for Differential Expression
Navdeep Gill and Braham Dhillon
Changes in the surrounding environment are mirrored by changes in the transcript profile of an organism. In the case of a plant pathogen, host colonization would be a challenge that triggers changes in transcript expression patterns. Determining the transcriptional profile could provide valuable clues on how an organism responds to defined stimuli, in this case, how a pathogen colonizes its host. Several robust data analysis methods and pipelines are available that can identify these differentially expressed transcripts. In this chapter we outline the steps and other caveats that are needed to run one such pipeline.
Advances in Artificial Systems for Logistics Engineering
Zhengbing Hu, Qingying Zhang, Sergey Petoukhov, and Matthew He
This book comprises high-quality refereed research papers presented at the 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Logistics Engineering (ICAILE2021), held in Kyiv, Ukraine, on 22–24 January 2021, organized jointly by Wuhan University of Technology, National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” and the International Research Association of Modern Education and Computer Science. The topics discussed in the book include state-of-the-art papers in artificial intelligence and logistics engineering. It is an excellent source of references for researchers, graduate students, engineers, management practitioners and undergraduate students interested in artificial intelligence and their applications in logistics engineering.
Arm Postures in Living Crinoids
David L. Meyer, Margaret Veitch, Charles G. Messing, and Angela Stevenson
This section provides an overview of a newly proposed classification of arm postures for crinoids both living and extinct (Messing et al., in review) for the online, revised volume of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. The order of posture types in the video follows the submitted article, which includes many still images in color and black and white, as well as line drawings. The videos were gathered from a variety of sources and are mostly from deep water. Some of the crinoids featured have only recently been observed in the wild and photographed for the first time. Brief descriptions of each posture type, taxa, depth, location, and source follow for each clip.
Chapter 11: Political Economy and Transitional Justice
Transitional justice is the way societies that have experienced civil conflict or authoritarian rule and widespread violations of human rights deal with the experience. With its roots in law, transitional justice as an area of study crosses various fields in the social sciences. This book is written with this multi- and inter-disciplinary dynamic of the field in mind.
The book presents the broad scope of transitional justice studies through a focus on the theory, mechanisms and debates in the area, covering such topics as:
- The origin, context and development of transitional justice
- Victims, victimology and transitional justice
- Prosecutions for abuses and gross violations of human rights
- Truth commissions
- Transitional justice and local justice
- Gender, political economy and transitional justice
- Apology, reconciliation and the politics of memory
Offering a discussion of the impact and outcomes of transitional justice, this approach provides valuable insight for those who seek both an introduction alongside relatively advanced engagement with the subject.
Transitional Justice: Theories, Mechanisms and Debates is an important text for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students who take courses in transitional justice, human rights and criminal law, as well as a systematic reference text for researchers.
Biology 1500 Laboratory Manual
Jane Nyugen, Drew W. Mertzlufft, Sarah G. Koerner, Kevin Corneille, Aarti Raja, and Emily Schmitt
Conflicts and Natural Disasters
Mary Schwoebel and Erin McCandless
Scholarly, policy, and practitioner efforts to understand the nexus between conflicts and natural disasters and to seek integrated ways to address them abound. As both conflicts and natural disasters have been increasing in intensity and frequency worldwide, awareness has grown about the devastating and unsustainable human and financial costs. Increasing inequalities between and within countries exacerbate these consequences for those who can least afford them. This entry examines the various manifestations of the relationship between conflict and disaster, and the ways in which they intersect and interact.
Chapter One - The mechanisms and cell signaling pathways of programmed cell death in the bacterial world
Robert Smith, Ivana Barraza, Rebecca J. Quinn, and Marla Fortoul
While programmed cell death was once thought to be exclusive to eukaryotic cells, there are now abundant examples of well regulated cell death mechanisms in bacteria. The mechanisms by which bacteria undergo programmed cell death are diverse, and range from the use of toxin-antitoxin systems, to prophage-driven cell lysis. Moreover, some bacteria have learned how to coopt programmed cell death systems in competing bacteria. Interestingly, many of the potential reasons as to why bacteria undergo programmed cell death may parallel those observed in eukaryotic cells, and may be altruistic in nature. These include protection against infection, recycling of nutrients, to ensure correct morphological development, and in response to stressors. In the following chapter, we discuss the molecular and signaling mechanisms by which bacteria undergo programmed cell death. We conclude by discussing the current open questions in this expanding field.
Chapter 6C: Fishes
Thomas J. Webb, Maria Jose Juan-Jordá, Hiroyuki Motomura, Franciso Navarrete-Mier, Henn Ojaveer, Hazel A. Oxenford, Chul Park, Clive Roberts, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Tracey Sutton, and Michael Thorndyke
Problems in Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory
This is the revised and expanded edition of the problem book Linear Algebra: Challenging Problems for Students, now entitled Problems in Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory. This new edition contains about fifty-five examples and many new problems, based on the author's lecture notes of Advanced Linear Algebra classes at Nova Southeastern University (NSU-Florida) and short lectures Matrix Gems at Shanghai University and Beijing Normal University.
The book is intended for upper division undergraduate and beginning graduate students, and it can be used as text or supplement for a second course in linear algebra. Each chapter starts with Definitions, Facts, and Examples, followed by problems. Hints and solutions to all problems are also provided.
Hankel Tournaments and Special Oriented Graphs
Richard Brualdi and Lei Cao
A Hankel tournament T of order n (an n × n Hankel tournament matrix T = [tij]) is a tournament such that i → j an edge implies (n + 1 − j) → (n + 1 − i) is also an edge (tij = tn+1−j,n+1−i) for all i and j. Hankel tournament matrices are (0, 1)-matrices which are combinatorially antisymmetric about the main diagonal and symmetric about the Hankel diagonal (the antidiagonal). Locally transitive tournaments are tournaments such that the in-neighborhood and the out-neighborhood of each vertex are transitive. Tournaments form a special class of oriented graphs. The score vectors of Hankel tournaments and of locally transitive tournaments have been characterized where each score vector of a locally transitive tournament is also a score vector of a Hankel tournament. In this paper we continue investigations into Hankel tournaments and locally transitive tournaments. We investigate Hankel cycles in Hankel tournaments and show in particular that a strongly connected Hankel tournament contains a Hankel Hamilton cycle and, in fact, is Hankel “even-pancyclic” or Hankel “odd-pancyclic.” We show that a Hankel score vector can be achieved by a Hankel “half-transitive” tournament, extending the corresponding result for score vectors of tournaments. We also consider some results on oriented graphs and the question of attainability of prescribed degrees by oriented graphs. Finally, we extend some results on 2-tournaments to Hankel 2-tournaments. In some instances we rely on the reader to extend arguments already in the literature. We illustrate our investigations with many examples.
Chapter 8: Biophysical model of coral population connectivity in the Arabian/Persian Gulf
Geórgenes Cavalcante, Filipe Vieira, Jonas Mortensen, Radhouane Ben-Hamadou, Pedro Range, Elizabeth A. Goergen, Edmo Campos, and Bernhard M. Riegl
The coral reef ecosystems of the Arabian/Persian Gulf (the Gulf) are facing profound pressure from climate change (extreme temperatures) and anthropogenic (land-use and population-related) stressors. Increasing degradation at local and regional scales has already resulted in widespread coral cover reduction. Connectivity, the transport and exchange of larvae among geographically separated populations, plays an essential role in recovery and maintenance of biodiversity and resilience of coral reef populations. Here, an oceanographic model in 3-D high-resolution was used to simulate particle dispersion of “virtual larvae.” We investigated the potential physical connectivity of coral reefs among different regions in the Gulf. Simulations reveal that basin-scale circulation is responsible for broader spatial dispersion of the larvae in the central region of the Gulf, and tidally-driven currents characterized the more localized connectivity pattern in regions along the shores in the Gulf's southern part. Results suggest predominant self-recruitment of reefs with highest source and sink ratios along the Bahrain and western Qatar coasts, followed by the south eastern Qatar and continental Abu Dhabi coast. The central sector of the Gulf is suggested as recruitment source in a stepping-stone dynamics. Recruitment intensity declined moving away from the Straits of Hormuz. Connectivity varied in models assuming passive versus active mode of larvae movement. This suggests that larval behaviour needs to be taken into consideration when establishing dispersion models, and establishing conservation strategies for these vulnerable ecosystems.
Exploring the Benefits of Mindset and Literacy to Engage in Acts of Peace and Social Justice Education
Kelly A. Concannon and Monique Scoggin
Drawing from many disciplinary areas, this edited volume shares tools, techniques and ideas for engaging college students in difficult discussions. From sexual violence to race to poverty and more, chapters in the book present useful strategies as well as limitations in creating safe classroom spaces. Ideal for peace and justice educators, this volume also includes the voices of students in every chapter.
Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Global Education
Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been one of the most dreaded, recent pandemics impacting multifarious global sectors, including education. To control contagion, affected nations ordered academic campus closures and home-schooling plans. Schools, colleges, and universities underwent a paradigm shift adopting internet-based delivery of lectures, synchronously or asynchronously (recorded), with virtual labs. Medical education suffered significantly; suspending student internships in hospitals decreased practical exposure to clinical specialties, impairing students’ performance, and competency.Teachers of traditional classes, with technical assistance, undertook rigorous trainings to restructure pedagogical and assessment strategies online using web/mobile applications and other digital tools.
In Pursuit of Harmony: How a Shared Leadership Practice Works as a Conflict Management System
Alexia Georgakopoulos and Barb Allen
Conflicts happen, and the workplace can be a cacophony for competing interests. Consider that organizational culture is an ensemble of shared values, beliefs, assumptions, perceptions, and norms. Organizations are not solos. They are an accompaniment of individuals, departments, and divisions, and each is competing for scarce resources. Measure in a little power imbalance and organizational political posturing. Then, scale in the fact that today’s managers are faced with diversity and cultural issues ranging from race and gender to individual ethnicity, principles, and philosophies, about which employees are more vocal. All this discord can strike a sharp note of dissonance. However, effective resolutions can change this discord to harmony.
Consider that music is not a single note. Rather, it is the silence between the notes that makes beautiful music, and conflict is that silence. Unfortunately, conflict has a bad reputation, and it is often labeled as disagreement, fighting, or arguing that leads to stress, retaliation, and resentment. Some managers spend a disproportionate amount of their workdays dealing with conflicts. They have not learned what causes conflicts or how to productively manage them. As a result, they often avoid or force outcomes causing discord, fractured relationships, loss of productivity, and even lawsuits. Learning to fine tune inevitable conflicts will help managers orchestrate a more harmonious workplace.
From Discord to Harmony: Making the Workplace Hum is largely evidence-based, and many of the chapters contain cutting-edge research by experts in their respective fields.
Chapter 15: A tropical eastern Pacific invasive brittle star species (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) reaches southeastern Florida
Peter W. Glynn, Renata Alitto, Joshua Dominguez, Ana B. Christensen, Phillip Gillette, Nicolas Martinez, Bernhard M. Riegl, and Kyle Dettloff
The invasive brittle star Ophiothela mirabilis (family Ophiotrichidae), a tropical Indo-Pacific endemic species, first reported in Atlantic waters off southern Brazil in 2000, has extended its range northward to the Caribbean Sea, to the Lesser Antilles in 2011, and was first reported in south Florida in January 2019. Its occurrence in southeast Florida extends along nearly 70 km of coastline, from near the Port of Miami, Miami-Dade County, northward to Deerfield Beach, Broward County. It occurs abundantly as an epizoite on octocorals, attaining population densities of 25 individuals and more per 10-cm long octocoral stem. The surface texture of octocoral hosts (rough, smooth) did not affect the densities of the ophiuroid epizoites, and there were significantly greater abundances on octocorals during two winter sampling periods than in the summer. Beige and orange-coloured morphs are sometimes present on the same octocoral stem. Gut content analysis supported a suspension feeding mode, revealing essentially identical ingested items in both colour morphs with a preponderance of amorphous detritus and filamentous algae. Molecular genetic evidence (COI & 16s) has established the identity of O. mirabilis and its relationship to invasive Brazilian populations. The orange and beige morphs form two distinct, but closely related lineages that may represent two separate introductions. The orange morph shares haplotypes with Brazilian and Caribbean specimens suggesting a further range expansion of the ‘original’ invasion. The beige morph, however, shares haplotypes with specimens from the Mexican Pacific and Peru and potentially represents a secondary introduction. Traits promoting dispersal and establishment of this species in new habitats are manifold: vagility and ability to cling tightly to diverse host taxa (e.g. sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, and echinoderms), frequent asexual reproduction (fissiparity), suspension feeding, including a wide range of dietary items, possession of integument-covered ossicles and arm spines offering protection from predators, and an effective competitive edge over associated microbiota for substrate space.
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