Equivalency theory and distance education
Educational technology, Learning and instruction
The changing and diverse environment in which distance education is practiced has inhibited the development of a single theory upon which to base practice and research. A variety of theories have been proposed to describe classical distance education. They include theories that emphasize independence and autonomy of the learner, industrialization of teaching, and interaction and communication. These traditional theories emphasize that distance education is a fundamentally different form of education.
Simonson, Michael, "Equivalency theory and distance education" (1999). Fischler College of Education: Faculty Articles. 59.