Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PhD)


Center for Psychological Studies

First Advisor

David Reitman

Second Advisor

Ryan Black

Third Advisor

Barry Nierenberg


item response theory, measurement, mindful parenting, modern test theory


Mindful parenting has been defined as “paying attention to your child and your parenting in a particular way: intentionally, here and now, and non-judgmentally” (Kabat-Zinn & Kabat-Zinn, 1997). Although it is hypothesized that increasing mindful parenting improves parent and child functioning, the development of a measure of mindful parenting is needed to support this assumption. The aim of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a measure of mindful parenting (the Mindfulness In Parenting Questionnaire: MIPQ) for use with mothers and fathers of both children and adolescents, ranging in age from 2- to 16-years-old. The current study contained three phases. First, content experts in the area of mindfulness and parenting provided content for preliminary items. Second, parents participated in cognitive interviewing in order to reduce measurement error and increase the psychometrics of the measure. The third and final phase consisted of large-scale data collection to explore the psychometrics of the new MIPQ. Two-hundred and three parents recruited from academic and after-school programs in South Florida completed the MIPQ, along with measures of intrapersonal mindfulness, parenting behavior, parenting style, and a demographics questionnaire. The Partial Credit Model, which evidenced significantly better fit than the Rating Scale Model, was used to evaluate the MIPQ using WINSTEPS 3.74.01. The MIPQ was iteratively refined based on statistical and clinical considerations, resulting in a 28-item measure with 4 response categories. Further, results supported a 2 factor mindful parenting construct. The first factor (Parental Self-Efficacy) reflects a parent’s self-efficacy, as well as nonreactivity and awareness within the parenting role, while the second factor (Being in the Moment with the Child) pertains to the child, and reflects present-centered attention, empathic understanding, and acceptance of the child. Factors were correlated (r = .67) and explained 42.3% and 43.4% of the variance, respectively. Correlations between the MIPQ and parenting style, parenting practices, practice of mindfulness, and participant demographics provided support for convergent and discriminant validity. The MIPQ exhibited a positive and weak correlation with the MAAS, indicating that interpersonal and intrapersonal mindfulness are related, but separate and distinct constructs. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

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Psychology Commons