Biology Faculty Articles

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Annals of International Medical and Dental Research


Periodontitis, Diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes, Gum disease







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Periodontitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease that is characterized by swollen gums, degradation of jaw structure, and potentially tooth loss. Like Periodontitis, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is also highly prevalent and largely multifactorial. Type 2 Diabetes is a condition in which higher than normal blood glucose levels cannot be properly maintained as the body’s normal mechanism of maintaining proper blood glucose levels, the release of insulin from pancreatic islet β-cells, becomes ineffective. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the relationship between the incidences of Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes. The risk that Type 2 Diabetes poses for the incidence of Periodontitis is analyzed. Patients afflicted with Type 2 Diabetes were found to be approximately three times as likely to eventually suffer from Periodontitis, as well. There is also emerging evidence supporting the correlation between the degree of hyperglycemia and severity of Periodontitis. Potential underlying mechanisms linking the two conditions at the cellular level have been discussed. Immune functioning and cytokine biology are among discussed mechanisms. Recent discoveries have also suggested that Periodontitis may also negatively impact glycemic control. As a result, not only should healthcare providers emphasize oral health as part of Type 2 Diabetes management, but healthy eating and physical activity should be among recommendations that make up Periodontal management.


© the author(s), publisher. Annals of International Medical and Dental Research (AIMDR) is an Official Publication of “Society for Health Care & Research Development”. It is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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