American Journal of Human Genetics
Twenty-seven independent polymorphic loci were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of serum, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts in two large families and analyzed for linkage to classical genetic markers. We detected seven serum, four erythrocyte, and 17 fibroblast protein loci that exhibited charge variation in these two families and in a sample of unrelated individuals. The genetic basis of protein variants was confirmed by quantitative gene-dosage dependence and by conformance to Mendelian transmission in the two families, except for four rare variants for which transmission analysis was not possible. Linkage analysis demonstrated that each of the variants represent products of independent loci, with the exception of erythrocyte locus (RBC4), which we also detected in fibroblasts (NC27). Two allozyme polymorphisms, glyoxalase-1 (GLO1) and phosphoglucomutase-3 (PGM3) were specifically identified here based on genotypic concordance and molecular mass. Unknown fibroblast protein (NC22) may be linked to apolipoprotein E (lod score = 2.8 at θm = θf = 0), while a serum protein locus (SER1) may be linked to alpha-haptoglobin (lod score = 2.54 at θm = .20, θf = .01). Six of seven polymorphic serum loci were previously located on two-dimensional gels: alpha-1 antitrypsin (PI), Gc-globulin (GC), alpha-2 HS glycoprotein (HSGA), alpha-haptoglobin (HP), and two apolipoproteins (APOE and APOA4). Six of 17 polymorphisms detected in fibroblasts were positionally identical to polymorphic loci seen in lymphocytes. These studies indicate a minimum level of average protein charge heterozygosity of approximately 2.2% for the most predominant human cellular proteins and of 5.6% for the most predominant proteins of serum.
Goldman, David; Lynn R. Goldin; P. Rathnagiri; Stephen J. O'Brien; Janice A. Egeland; and Carl R. Merril. 1985. "Twenty-Seven Protein Polymorphisms by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis of Serum, Erythrocytes, and Fibroblasts in Two Pedigrees." American Journal of Human Genetics 37, (5): 898-911. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cnso_bio_facarticles/160