Biology Faculty Articles


Jeremy Schmutz, HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center
Steven B. Cannon, USDA-ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit
Jessica Schlueter, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Jianxin Ma, Purdue University
Therese Mitros, University of California
William Nelson, The University of Arizona
David L. Hyten, USDA, ARS, Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory
Qijian Song, USDA, ARS, Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory
Jay J. Thelen, Division of Biochemistry & Interdisciplinary Plant Group
Jianlin Cheng, University of Missouri
Dong Xu, University of Missouri
Uffe Hellsten, Joint Genome Institute
Gregory D. May, The National Center for Genome Resources
Yeisoo Yu, University of Arizona
Tetsuya Sakurai, RIKEN Plant Science Center
Taishi Umezawa, RIKEN Plant Science Center
Madan K. Bhattacharyya, Iowa State University
Devinder Sandhu, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
Babu Valliyodan, University of Missouri
Erika Lindquist, Joint Genome Institute
Myron Peto, USDA-ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit
David Grant, USDA-ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit
Shengqiang Shu, Joint Genome Institute
David Goodstein, Joint Genome Institute
Kerrie Barry, Joint Genome Institute
Montona Futrell-Griggs, Purdue University
Brian Abernathy, Purdue University
Jianchang Du, Purdue University
Zhixi Tian, Purdue University
Liucun Zhu, Purdue University
Navdeep Gill, Purdue UniversityFollow
Trupti Joshi, University of Missouri
Marc Libault, University of Missouri
Anand Sethuraman, HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center
Xue-Cheng Zhang, University of Missouri
Kazuo Shinozaki, RIKEN Plant Science Center
Henry T. Nguyen, University of Missouri
Rod A. Wing, University of Arizona
Perry Cregan, USDA, ARS, Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory
James Specht, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Jane Grimwood, HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center
Dan Rokhsar, Joint Genome Institute
Gary Stacey, University of Missouri
Randy C. Shoemaker, USDA-ARS Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit
Scott A. Jackson, Purdue University

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



DNA sequencing, Plant genetics







First Page


Last Page



Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70% more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78% of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75% of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.


This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike licence (, which permits distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This licence does not permit commercial exploitation, and derivative works must be licensed under the same or similar licence.

Additional Comments

A Corrigendum to this article was published on 06 May 2010

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.

nature08957.pdf (73 kB)



Peer Reviewed

Find in your library

Included in

Biology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.