Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Telomere repeat, rDNA probe, CBG staining, CDAG banding, Constitutive heterochromatin, Pericentric inversion, Semiaquatic mammal, Seal, Walrus, Tandem fusion, Evolutionary new centromere, Chromosome map
Pinnipedia karyotype evolution was studied here using human, domestic dog, and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes to obtain comparative chromosome maps among species of Odobenidae (Odobenus rosmarus), Phocidae (Phoca vitulina, Phoca largha, Phoca hispida, Pusa sibirica, Erignathus barbatus), and Otariidae (Eumetopias jubatus, Callorhinus ursinus, Phocarctos hookeri, and Arctocephalus forsteri). Structural and functional chromosomal features were assessed with telomere repeat and ribosomal-DNA probes and by CBG (C-bands revealed by barium hydroxide treatment followed by Giemsa staining) and CDAG (Chromomycin A3-DAPI after G-banding) methods. We demonstrated diversity of heterochromatin among pinniped karyotypes in terms of localization, size, and nucleotide composition. For the first time, an intrachromosomal rearrangement common for Otariidae and Odobenidae was revealed. We postulate that the order of evolutionarily conserved segments in the analyzed pinnipeds is the same as the order proposed for the ancestral Carnivora karyotype (2n = 38). The evolution of conserved genomes of pinnipeds has been accompanied by few fusion events (less than one rearrangement per 10 million years) and by novel intrachromosomal changes including the emergence of new centromeres and pericentric inversion/centromere repositioning. The observed interspecific diversity of pinniped karyotypes driven by constitutive heterochromatin variation likely has played an important role in karyotype evolution of pinnipeds, thereby contributing to the differences of pinnipeds’ chromosome sets.
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Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Polina L. Perelman; Natalya A. Lemskaya; Anastasiya A. Proskuryakova; Natalya A. Serdyukova; Vladimir N. Burkanov; Maksim B. Gorshunov; Oliver A. Ryder; Mary Thompson; Gina Lento; Stephen James O'Brien; and Alexander S. Graphodatsky. 2020. "Karyotype Evolution in 10 Pinniped Species: Variability of Heterochromatin versus High Conservatism of Euchromatin as Revealed by Comparative Molecular Cytogenetics." Genes 11, (12): 1485. doi:10.3390/genes11121485.