Theses and Dissertations

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Defense Date

12-2004

Document Type

Dissertation - NSU Access Only

Degree Name

Ph.D. Oceanography/Marine Biology

Department

Oceanographic Center

First Advisor

Andrew Rogerson

Second Advisor

Charles G. Messing

Third Advisor

Richard E. Dodge

Fourth Advisor

Curtis Burney

Fifth Advisor

Tzachi Samocha

Abstract

Modern man has successfully farmed penaeid shrimp since 1904 at Kumamoto, when a Japanese farmer over-wintered kuruma prawns (Penaeus japonicus) by feeding them boiled anchovy. Within fifty years, the penaeid life cycle had been closed by Dr. Motosaku Fujinaga (Hudinaga 1935), and commercial production was accomplished by the late sixties (Hudinaga 1942; Kittaka 1967). Yet, more than thirty years later, bottlenecks and barriers to profitable commercial culture still plague this industry. Diseases due to inadequate bio-security and environmental degradation; oceanic and coastal zone pollution, and antibiotic, hormone and chemical misuse have together drained resources, profits and consumer confidence from an already struggling industry. This dissertation presents a collection of experiments that aided in the development of a production protocol for the commercial culture of Litopenaeus vannamei within a zero discharge, very low salinity, inland system. These experiments suggest that the technology exists for profitable commercial culture of this species without dependence on an oceanic nexus.

Chapter 1 introduces the science of aquaculture and reviews the state of the industry, including the demand for ocean products and its attendant stresses, as well as stresses caused by aquaculture. Included in this chapter is an overview of factors that contribute to choices of species, research needs and protocol for inland culture.

Chapter 2 describes the methods and materials used in experiments related to inland, low-salinity penaeid culture. These include experiments on salinity and ionic acclimation of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae for zero-exchange inland nurseries; density and feeding for the inland culture of L. vannamei in zero-exchange, freshwater nurseries; density and feeding for the inland culture of L. vannamei in zero-exchange, freshwater ponds; salinity and density for polyculture of both Oreochromis aureus and O. niloticus with L. vannamei within zero-exchange freshwater treatment ponds, and nitrite toxicity in low salinity waters.

Chapter 3 presents the results from the experiments described in Chapter 2.

Chapter 4 discusses the results found in Chapter 3 and commercial protocols developed with the use and reliance on the experiments presented. in this dissertation. The protocols presented are not proofs nor based upon any single proof but upon the work carried out over seven years.

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