Context: Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory identifies nine “intelligences” (i.e., ways of learning) that help individuals acquire and apply knowledge in relevant contexts. Objective: To explore athletic training students’ (ATS) dominant intelligences and to observe if “intelligences” differ according to selected demographic variables. Design: The Multiple Intelligence Inventory (MII) was used to identify the dominant intelligences of ATS’s. Setting: Athletic training students actively engaged in a CAATE-accredited educational program. Participants: Eighty-five (85) ATSs participated in the study; mean age 21±1.9; 58% were female and 42% male. Thirty-four (40%) were in their second semester, 15 (18%) were in their third semester, 16 (19%) were in their fourth semester, and 24 (20%) were in at least their fifth semester. Main Outcome Measures: Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to report distribution of multiple intelligences, independent t-tests and ANOVA (Tukey post hoc) were used to measure differences (p=.05) between ATS. Paired t-tests compared differences in intelligences ratings and coefficient alpha was used for internal consistency of the MII. Results: Internal consistency for the MII was acceptable (α=.85). Kinesthetic was rated highest, M=8.0±1.6 (scale 1-10) and was higher than the other intelligences t(84)=4.2 to 16.6 (p=.000); second was intrapersonal (M=6.89±2.2). Verbal intelligence was the lowest, M=3.85±1.8; and was lower than the other intelligences t(84)=-4.0 to -16.6 (p=.000). With one exception, independent t-tests and ANOVA comparisons found no differences between ATS’s in the demographic variables measured (i.e., semester in school, age, level in ATEP, gender, ethnicity). Only differences in existential intelligence were noted between semesters and year in school F(3,81)=3.26 (p=.03); F(2,82)=4.62 (p=.013).Conclusions: Kinesthetic intelligence (i.e., hands-on) was the most dominant among ATS and verbal intelligence (i.e., auditory) was the lowest. The presence of certain intelligence may be attributed to factors other than gender, ethnicity, or semester in school.


Submission Location


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.