College of Psychology: Faculty Articles


Utility of a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination with Extended Delayed Recall in Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia among Community Dwelling Elders

Document Type


Publication Date



Dementia, Screening, Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease

Publication Title

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry








The objective of this study was to test the utility of additional delayed recall of the three recall items of the Folstein Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) as a screening measure for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly. It used a cross-sectional study of subjects, who were administered a brief memory screening battery which included the MMSE and extended delayed recall of the three MMSE recall items at 5 minute intervals. The criteria for cognitive status were determined on the basis of the neurological and neuropsychological evaluation. One hundred and two elderly persons who were recruited through a memory screening program were diagnosed as cognitively normal (N=52), mild cognitively impaired (N=24), or demented (N=26). The observed sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 90.4% was achieved across three delayed recall trials in differentiating cases with mild cognitive impairment (without dementia) from individuals with normal cognition and was superior to the total MMSE score alone (sensitivity/specificity: 70.8%/84.6%). Cumulative recall for the three MMSE items across only two delayed recall trials demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.2% and specificity of 90.4% in differentiating between cases of dementia versus cases diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The three trial delayed recall score enhanced prediction of mild cognitive impairment in at-risk elderly living with the community and may have promise in the development of future screening batteries.