The Effects of Delayed Rewards, Tokens, and Stimulant Medication on Sportsmanlike Behavior with ADHD-Diagnosed Children.
Amphetamines, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Behavior Therapy, Preschool Child, Combined Modality Therapy, Cooperative Behavior, Methylphenidate, Token Economy, Sports
Five children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder participated in a summer program designed to evaluate behavioral and pharmacological treatments in a recreational setting. The effect of a contingency for increased sportsmanlike behavior, with and without the use of tokens, was examined during kickball games. The influence of stimulant medication was also examined for 3 of the children. A multiple-baseline, reversal design revealed that a delayed reward condition did not increase sportsmanlike behavior, whereas the addition of tokens (and praise) to the delayed reward increased sportsmanlike behavior for all 5 participants. Stimulant medication appeared to have very little influence on sportsmanlike behavior. Future directions for behavioral social skills interventions using a sports skills model are also discussed.
Hupp, S. D.,
O'Callaghan, P. M.,
(2002). The Effects of Delayed Rewards, Tokens, and Stimulant Medication on Sportsmanlike Behavior with ADHD-Diagnosed Children.. Behavior Modification, 26(2), 148-162.
Available at: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cps_facarticles/180