Contrasting Genetic Influence of CCR2 and CCR5 Variants on HIV-1 Infection and Disease Progression
The critical role of chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis prompted a search for polymorphisms in other chemokine receptor genes that mediate HIV-1 disease progression. A mutation (CCR2-64I) within the first transmembrane region of the CCR2 chemokine and HIV-1 receptor gene is described that occurred at an allele frequency of 10 to 15 percent among Caucasians and African Americans. Genetic association analysis of five acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cohorts (3003 patients) revealed that although CCR2-64I exerts no influence on the incidence of HIV-1 infection, HIV-1-infected individuals carrying the CCR2-64I allele progressed to AIDS 2 to 4 years later than individuals homozygous for the common allele. Because CCR2-64I occurs invariably on a CCR5-+- bearing chromosomal haplotype, the independent effects of CCR5-Δ32 (which also delays AIDS onset) and CCR2-64I were determined. An estimated 38 to 45 percent of AIDS patients whose disease progresses rapidly (less than 3 years until onset of AIDS symptoms after HIV-1 exposure) can be attributed to their CCR2-+/+ or CCR5-+/+ genotype, whereas the survival of 28 to 29 percent of long-term survivors, who avoid AIDS for 16 years or more, can be explained by a mutant genotype for CCR2 or CCR5.
Smith, Michael W.; Michael Dean; Mary Carrington; Cheryl Winkler; Gavin A. Huttley; Deborah A. Lomb; James J. Goedert; Thomas R. O'Brien; Lisa Jacobson; Richard A. Kaslow; Susan Buchbinder; Eric Vittinghoff; David Vlahov; Keith Hoots; Margaret Hilgartner; Hemophilia Growth and Development Study; Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study; Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study; San Francisco City Cohort; ALIVE Study; and Stephen J. O'Brien. 1997. "Contrasting Genetic Influence of CCR2 and CCR5 Variants on HIV-1 Infection and Disease Progression." Science 277, (5328): 959-965. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cnso_bio_facarticles/683