C-C Chemokines, Pivotal in Protection Against HIV Type 1 Infection
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Exposure to HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not usually lead to infection. Although this could be because of insufficient virus titer, there is now abundant evidence that some individuals resist infection even when directly exposed to a high titer of HIV. This protection recently has been correlated with homozygous mutations of an HIV-1 coreceptor, namely CCR5, the receptor for the β-chemokines. Moreover, earlier results already had shown that the same chemokines markedly suppress the nonsyncitial inducing variants of HIV-1, the chief virus type transmitted from person to person. CCR5 mutation, as a unique mechanism of protection, is, however, suspect because HIV-1 variants can use other chemokine receptors as their coreceptor. Moreover, recent results have established that infection can indeed sometimes occur with such mutations. Here, we report on transient natural resistance over time of most of 128 hemophiliacs who were inoculated repeatedly with HIV-1-contaminated Factor VIII concentrate from plasma during 1980–1985 before the development of the HIV blood test. Furthermore, and remarkably, 14 subjects remain uninfected to this date, and in these subjects we found homozygous CCR5 mutations in none but in most of them overproduction of β chemokines. In vitro experiments confirmed the potent anti-HIV suppressive effect of these chemokines.
Zagury, Daniel; Abderrahim Lachgar; Vida Chams; Lat S. Fall; Jacky Bernard; Jean-Francois Zagury; Bernard Bizzini; Allesandro Gringeri; Elena Santagostino; Jay Rappaport; Michael Feldman; Stephen J. O'Brien; Arsene Burny; and Robert C. Gallo. 1998. "C-C Chemokines, Pivotal in Protection Against HIV Type 1 Infection." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, (7): 3857-3861. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cnso_bio_facarticles/229